Following the Chao, Han Dynasty of China took the domination of former Au Lac in 111 BC. The territory of
Au Lac was comprised in 3 districts of Chiao Chih province, each ruled by a Chinese mandarin while the old system of lower
rank rulers of Lac Hau, Lac Tuong were kept unchanged. Viet people had to pay tributes and many kind of taxes to the Hans.
The Chinese mandarins tried to occupy the area of land and changed them into Chinese farms with Chinese peasants
immigrated. But the imposition of a foreign administrative system and the Sinicization was not easy, numerous sporadic
uprisings and rebellions are testimony to Viet strong resistance. The most important was that of the two sisters, Trung
Trac and Trung Nhi, born of a family of military chiefs in the district of Me Linh (northwest of Hanoi). Between
40 and 43 A.D the Trung sisters launched a vast movement throughout Chiao Chih led by women in many places. Trung Trac
was made "Queen" and Chinese imperialist domination was overthrown. The Han emperor, then at the peak of his power, had
to send his best general, Ma Yuan "Tamer of Waters" to Chiao Chih. By the end of the year 43 A.D., the insurrection was
crushed, but it left an indelible imprint on the history of the country.
After the collapsing of Trung Vuong, the Han rejected the system of Lac Hau, Lac Tuong and reinforced
the administration with Hans. They forced Viet people to follow Han laws, Han way of living and immigrated vast numbers
of Han people into Viet country, taught Han language in an attempt of Sinicization of Viet. The domination was very
brutal with higher taxes and tributes. However, the Han also introduced Chinese writing, Confucianism, science, medicine,
architecture and many other cultural aspects etc. The scholars and religious travelers also brought Buddhism, Taoism and
the civil code of Confucianism to Viet people. In the 2nd century AD, many Buddhist pagodas were constructed in Luy Lau
(Bac Ninh). These facts of Chinese civilization imprinted the northern Vietnamese so profoundly that it became a central
factor in their complex make-up.
On that period, the Iron technology was prosperous in Viet country. The Viet got their know-how of
moulding weapons, tools, gadgets from Iron. The agriculture reached a higher step for using iron ploughshare and buffalos
and constructing canal system. There were two rice crops each year. Many kinds of fruit-trees and industrial trees were
The handicrafts also developed, apart from traditional pottery and weave, metallurgy, the technology of
paper, glassware, and jewellery were transferred from China and quickly settled in Vietnam. In the 3rd century, the Viet
even exported their paper to Roman country.
Along with the development of economy, the system of trade also spread all over country with all kind
of markets. But the foreign trade was limited by the Hans.
Famous Names of the Reign:
+ Trung Sisters and their woman-generals were the famous warriors. In a very short time, Trungs and
their troop, almost a half were women, swept out the skilled, atrocious Han expeditionary corps, occupied 63 citadels
and forts and founded an independent state. Being defeated by Hans, Trung Sisters committed suicide by sank themselves
into Hat Giang River in 43 AD, the 2nd month of Lunar.